|1975 Emergency Reasons?|
India is known for the world’s largest democracy.
The country’s special thing is that despite having vast diversity across the country
Its democratic structure works successfully since its independence.
It was the aspiration and desires of the leaders and peoples of India, who participated In the national struggle movement for the cause of India’s Independence, that country will be followed the principle of the Democratic nation.
The period of emergency in India refers to the 19 Months, From 25 June 1975 to 21 March 1977.
Now, we will discuss why 1975 Emergency known as Darkest hours in Indian democracy?
The answer is hidden in Congress’s some of evil steps that were taken in view of maintaining national integrity or unity in India. They’ve started unfollowing the ideas and principles of Democratic nation which later came as the result by declaring countrywide National Emergency in India, 1975.
To safeguard the position of his own, Indira Gandhi calls for an emergency in a few minutes before the midnight of 25 June 1975 to President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed under Article 352 of the Indian Constitution.
The period of emergency in India has shaken the structure of democracy in India for a short duration.
Generally, Emergency is declared for an internal disturbance and threatening to the internal security of India, under Article 352 of the Indian Constitution.
Although movement indeed occurred all across the country especially in Gujarat and Bihar. We also cannot deny most of the movements occurred before the emergency were peacefully conducted, and it was no harm for the internal disturbance.
In the next section, we will broadly describe it
REASONS FOR EMERGENCY DECLARATION
1. Due to the Inefficient Policy of Congress, every People of India, especially in North India, altogether stand against INC. Therefore, to maintain or handle the situation of his own, she declared emergency in India in midnight of 25th June of 1975.
2. The situation of opposing the activity of Congress is the biggest reason for the declaring emergency. In 1973-74 Increasing oil price, Monsoon Failure was the cause of the economic crisis.
3. Daily Strike of Railway workers interrupts the activity of Government offices and daily works of the public.
4. Due to the increasing strike and movement, Congress lost its govt. From Gujarat and Bihar. In the leadership of JP (Jay Prakash Narayan) all opposition parties collectively passed the No-Confidence motion against Congress govt.
5. The Controversial conflict between Judiciary and Executive is another major reason for the emergency declaration.
Overlook the emergence of Indira Gandhi in Politics
After the unprecedented death of Prime minster Lal bahadur Shastri in 1966.
There is coming for an immediate need for next Prime minister subsequently Question was raising who will be the next prime minister.
The Congress committee chooses Indira Gandhi as his next prime minister. Indira Gandhi comes into politics and split Congress into two parts in 1969: First Congress (O) headed by Morarji Desai with some old members of the congress and Second was Congress (R) in respect of Indira Gandhi with some loyal members towards her.
During 1967 -71 it increases the personality of Indira Gandhi in front of people because of its effective policy measures such as the 1971 Slogan “Garibi Hatao”. This slogan attracts the many backward classes of the country. As a result, Congress gain victory with (352 Out of 518)
But After 1971 the situation of India was become worsened by every next year.
IMPACT OF EMERGENCY
● The government stop the freedom of the Press and told newspaper publishers without the prior recommendation of govt. you can’t publish anything. It is called “Press- Censorship”.
● To looking over communal and social unbalanced, Government Restrict the activity of RSS (Rashtriya Swaynsevak Sangh and Jamat – a- Islami.
● Ineffectual of citizens certain Rights and they also don’t have the right to knock the door of court in case of violation.
● The government also uses Preventive detention in high measurements during an emergency. In this provision government arrests and detain any people without telling him or her reason for detaining.
● MISA Maintenance of Internal Security Act) was also used to looking for internal security.
● In the early morning of emergency declaration, many opposition leaders and members arrested and put under the jail and few leaders who maintain himself to escape underground and organized activity.
Above all the discussion has made proved that the Government of India under the leadership of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi misuses state machinery, and guarding his position at the cost of democracy.
Another negative aspect of the emergency was imposing censorship on media. The Media is known for Fourth pillar of the Indian democracy. During the period of emergency it loose it autonomous character.
The Freedom of Press was curbed during the emergency in India, and no one can produce and Publish any news which threaten the government. Without the prior recommendation of Government, no news would be published.
Some news had published but it only represents the good activity of Government and this was the major threat to Indian democracy.
Judiciary another major pillar of democracy was always seen in conflict with the executive. During an emergency, many of the supreme court verdicts on the appeal of people has nullified using the executive.
So it is adequate to say that the 1975 Emergency is the darkest hour in Indian democracy.