|An Image of Hitler (left) and Benito Mussolini (Right) at Venice|
Fascism is a period of violence, struggle, injustice, Dominance, and war which enhances several ups and downs in economic structure and social transformation but above all these incidents it’s unification marked as good characteristics of Fascism.
This form of government is often characterized by dictatorial power where all powers are centered on the leader( Dictator).
It is also characterized by the elite dominant over the general people of society.
Fascism is a form of Authoritarian, Populist, Radical right-wing, and Ultranationalism and opposed the Parliamentary liberalism, Marxism, and communism.
Fascism was emerged in Europe by the early 20th century and spread all over Europe but as a starting first fascist movement was taking place in Italy during world war I, before spreading other parts of Europe.
The Mussolini was known as the strong leader among Italians in Italy. For the transformation or protection of the social and economic structure.
The Reason Behind the Rise of Fascism in Europe is the mass destruction of the economic and social structure during world war I leading by the Liberal form of government.
This World war I brought a massive change like war, society, the state, and technology. According to fascists the advent of total war and total mass mobilization broken down the distinction between mass and armed militants and each individual has participated in this war in some manner.
As a result of war, the state is capable of mobilizing millions of people and it gave unprecedented authority to intervene in the life of people.
Fascism believes liberal democracy is obsolete and mass mobilization of Society is possible in one-party state government and prepared nation always for armed conflict and resolve economic difficulties.
Fascism advocates a mixed economy by the principal achieving goal of Autarky ( National Economic- self-sufficiency) by interventionist and protectionist economic policy.
To Define fascism several scholars, Historians, and Political Scientists have been long debated the exact nature of Fascism and each one definition provides his one unique elements. These definitions are also criticized too widely or narrowly.
Common definition of the fascism Focuses on three main concepts:
1. The Way of Negotiations ( Anti- Liberalism, Anti- conservatism, and Anticommunism).
2. The National Goal of Fascism is Regulated Economic Structure and Transform social relations within the nation
3. Political Aesthetics of Fascism society depicted Fascism from others there romantic symbolism which shows strength through unity, Positive view of violence, Mobilization of civilian Militants.
The Scholars like; Roger Griffin, Robert Paxton, Stanley Payne have given their definition differently.
How Robert Paxton defines fascism?
According to Robert Paxton Fascism is a kind of Political behavior which is marked as community decline, humiliation, and Victimhood, as a result, it abandons democratic liberties and pursue redemptive violence without legal restraints and there collaborative work with traditional elites as a mass-based party who committed themselves, nationalist militants.
How Roger Griffin defines fascism?
Another Prominent scholar in this field was Roger Griffin. He describes Fascism is a very genuine way as a genus of political ideology and idea which he describes revolving around the Populist ultranationalism form of government with the mythic core.
Griffin describes ideology as having three Core and Major components:
(1). The Rebirth Myth
(2). Populist Ultra Nationalism
(3). Myth of Decadence
Fascism is a genuinely revolutionary, trans class form of Anti- liberal, communism and last Analysis Anti- conservative nationalism.
He distinguishes an inter-war period in which it manifested itself in the elite-led but Populist “armed party” politics opposing socialism and liberalism and promising radical politics to rescue the nation from decadence.