|An Image of Benito Mussolini riding on horse with his forces.|
The term fascismo is derived from the Latin word fasces. The fasces, which consisted of a bundle of rods that were tied around an axe, was an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of the civic magistrate. They were carried by his lictors and could be used for corporal and capital punishment at his command.
The word fascismo also relates to political organization in Italy known as fasci, groups similar to guilds or syndicates.
The symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity; a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break. Similar symbols were developed by different fascist movements.
Fascism is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek elevation of their nation based on a commitment to an organic national community where its individual are united together as one people in national identity by suprapersonal connections of ancestry and culture through a totalitarian state that seeks the mass ‘mobilization of a nation through discipline, indoctrination, physical training, and eugenics.
Fascism was founded during World War I by Italian national syndicalists who combined left-wing and right-wing political views.
PRINCIPLES OF FASCISM
OPPOSED MULTIPLE IDEOLOGIES:
Fascism opposes multiple ideologies: conservatism, liberalism, and the two major forms of socialism communism and social democracy, and denounce them as representatives of sectarian interests rather than the community as a whole.
AUTHORITARIAN OR MILITARY FORM OF GOVERNMENT:
Fascism is a authoritarian form of government all the executive and legislative powers are vested in the hands of ruler, a dictator.
PROMOTER OF WAR AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE:
Fascism promotes political violence and war as forms of direct action that promote national rejuvenation, spirit, and vitality. Fascists commonly utilize paramilitary organizations to commit or threaten violence against their opponents.
A SINGLE RULER OR DICTATOR:
The fascist party and state are led by a supreme leader who exercises a dictatorship over the party, the government, and other state institutions.
FASCISTS CLAIMS THEIR IDEOLOGY IS SUPREME:
Fascists claim that their ideology is a trans-class movement, advocating resolution to domestic class conflict within a nation to secure national solidarity.
It claims that its goal of cultural nationalization of society emancipates the nation’s proletariat, and promotes the assimilation of all classes into the proletarian national culture.
CRITICAL OPPONENT OF BOURGEOIS CLASS:
Fascism opposes domestic class conflict, fascism believes that bourgeois-proletarian conflict primarily exists in national conflict between proletarian nations versus bourgeois nations; fascism declares its opposition to bourgeois nations and declares its support for the victory of proletarian nations.
A STATE CONTROLLED AND REGULATED MIXED ECONOMY:
Fascism advocates a state-controlled and regulated mixed economy; the principal economic goal of fascism is to achieve national autarky to secure national independence, through protectionist and interventionist economic policies.
It promotes regulated private enterprise and private property contingent whenever beneficial to the nation and state enterprise and state property whenever necessary to protect its interests. At the same time, fascists are hostile to financial capital, plutocracy, and “the power of money”.
SUPPORTER OF THE CRIMINALIZATION OF STRIKES:
It supports the criminalization of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers because it deems these acts as prejudicial and detrimental to the national community and therefore to society as an entirety.